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Atlantic Puffin
Food Web


Ecology is the study of living organisms and there relationship with there non living features in an ecosystem. For examples a fish interacts with the non living features in his ecosystem, like the water, temperature, air, and the sun.


An ecosystem is an area in the world where living and non living features interacts with each other. Ecosystems can be as small as a fish tank and as big the world
we live in. Lets take your neighborhood park for example, think of all the living organisms: squirrels, birds, chipmunks, and plants. Then think about all the non living features: the temperature, the water, the soil, the air, the rain, sun. For example the plants interact with the sun, soil, and temperature; with bad soil the plant can't grow, without the sun it can't make food and if the temperature is to low or to high the plant will die.

How do animals relate with each other?

Limiting Factors in populations

A limiting factor in a population is something that stops a population of over growing. For example the lions in Africa stop the
population of antelopes to over grow.

Animal Diversity

The animal diversity is how many different animals there in an ecosystem. For example in the Pacific Ocean their are more then 2000 different species of animals and fish. A diversity is key for the survival of an ecosystem. without a diversity an ecosystem could not survive because without the diversity there would be no animal to be a limiting factor, no herbivores to eat the plants, etc

Symbiotic Relationship

There are three different symbiotic relationships: Mutualism, commensalism, and Parasitism.

Mutualism: mutualism is a relationship where two animals interact with each other and both benefit. For example the clown fish, and the sea anemone have a mutualism relationship, the clown fish cleans the sea anemone and the sea anemone protects the clown fish.

Commensalism: commensalism is a relationship where one animal benefits and the other animal is not affected. For example the shark and the pilot fish have a commensalism relationship, the pilot fish follow the shark and eat left over meat of the sharks meal.

Parasitism: parasitism is when one animal benefits and the other is hurt. For example the tape worm and the horse have a parasitism relationship, the tape worm goes into the horses body and eats all its nutrients, after a while the horse dies.

Animal Adaptations

To survive in there ecosystem animals have had to adapt, this is called animal adaptation. If animals could not adapt to there ecosystem they would soon die if any major change should happen. The process of animal adaptation takes thousands to millions of years. Another name for animal adaptation is called evolution. A big example of animal adaptation are the Galapagos islands. On these islands researchers have found common animals who have adapted to there situation: swimming iguanas, biggest land turtle in the world, researchers have also found non flying birds who did not need to fly so have adapted to using there wings to become better swimmers in water to catch there food.

The Frog has adapted to its environment with its nocturnal site, camouflage to hide from predators, selective hearing, permeable skin to absorb the water when swimming, a long tong to catch its pray, and toe pads.
The Owl has adapted to its ecosystem with large eyes to see farther and better in the dark, talons to catch there pray, silent feather so catch there'd, camouflage, and very good hearing.


Everything in an ecosystem is related to one another. More then one of a species is called a population. When the same population fights for a resource like habitat, food, and water it is called competition. When different populations interact with each other it is called a community.

Predator and Pray

  There is always a predator and there will always be pray, whether it's a Frog catching the Fly, or a Lion eating Zebra. If you are a predator that does not mean you are mean, it is the way animals have adapted so that no one species
overgrows, and creates an unbalance.

Consumers, Producers, and Decomposers

Habitat and Niche

Producers are green  plants, they are called producers because they are the ones that produce the food at the beginning of the food chain ( link to food chain page). producers take the energy from the sun and transform it into food with a waste of oxygen, by a method called photosynthesis. In comparison to producers consumers  have a much bigger variations: herbivores (sheep), carnivore (wolf), and many minor carnivores in between ( frog).
Decomposers are always last on a food chain they are the ones that decompose the died animals like recycling, and use respiration, to change the food to energy with carbon dioxide as waste which is used by plants. Consumers also use respiration though they only give out carbon dioxide, for there feces need to be decomposed by decomposers before useable by plants

A habitat is the place where animals live. For example the owl lives in a tree, the fish in a pound. A niche is how an animal: catches its pray, what it eats, makes its nest , how it produces,  etc. For example the Atlantic Puffin catches its pray by diving into the water, eating crustaceans, fish, and mollusks.

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